The Future Challenges For Indian Education System

International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
Dr. Shailaja Dhruva*  
India’s education system is one of the biggest systems of the world. The New government of  
India is spending money for structural change of education. They tried to change national Curricula  
for all levels of education but there are some challenges in the future, i.e., Operation Blackboard,  
Restructuring, and reorganization of teacher education, Minimum Level of learning, Movement to  
education all, Fundamental refute etc.This is a secondary data-based paper. The main objective  
of this paper is to evaluate the current education system and to highlight future challenges.This  
paper is divided in three parts. First part shows the need for change in our education policy. The  
second part is on the challenges and the third part is on concluding remarks and suggestions.The  
study explores challenges before primary and secondary education, challenges against curricula  
content, funding and research in higher education.There will be challenges between male and  
female education as well as between rural and urban Education - National curricula is also criticized  
for attempting our national values.The paper also highlights culture, languages and ethical values  
of future generation.  
Keywords : Education-Challenges, Government.  
Emile Durkheim argued that education is only the image and reflection of society and education can  
be reformed only if society itself is reformed (Carls, 2012) whereas, there are many people support  
and many people who reject the idea of above but everyone believe that education is essential for  
the people to enhancing their knowledge and skills and to get empowerment. In every Society  
education is an important at all level i.e., primary, secondary and higher secondary as well as higher  
education. India’s higher education system is the world’s third largest in terms of students. Next to  
china and United states.  
At the end of the XI Plan (31.03.2012), there were 573 Universities (43 Central, 129 Deemed and 397  
State Universities (State Public 286 and State Private 111) and 4 Institutions established under Special  
State Legislature Acts and 35,539 Colleges in the Country. During the year 2016-17 (last year of the  
XII Plan) there were 795 Universities (47 Central,123 Deemed, 360 State Public, 262 State Private  
and 3 Institutions under Special State Legislature Act) and 42338 Colleges, thus registering an increase  
of 38.74% in the number of universities and 19.13% increase in colleges during the 5th year of XII  
Plan in comparison to the figures at the end of XI Plan. (UGC Annual Report2016-2017:74).  
It is also observed that our education is significant and impressive developments of the past few  
decades, but there are also facts that in future that there are many challenges in higher education in  
India.’ Report to the Nation-2006’ of the national knowledge commission which concludes that there  
is ‘a Quiet crisis in higher education in India that runs deep’. There is quantity and quality problems  
of higher education. The main focus of this paper is to highlights future challenges for higher education  
in India.  
International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
This is a secondary data-based paper. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the current  
Higher Education scenario and its future challenges. Various articles and internet were used for this  
Problems of higher education  
There are many basic problems facing higher education in India.  
1) Inadequate facilities in the campus.  
2) Large vacancies in faculty position.  
3) Poor slandered of teaching.  
4) Declined research standards.  
5) Over crowded classrooms.  
6) Gender imbalances in different education.  
7) Co-orations.  
8) Inadequate financial support from the government.  
9) Increasing educated unemployment.  
10) Policy paralysis and overlapping of aspiration.  
11) Low Enrolment rates.  
12) Regional disparities.  
13) Lack of Autonomy.  
Since independence Indian government is facing some key challenges with education.  
The Key challenges are  
) The supply-demand gap - India has a low rate of enrolment in higher education by 2020, the  
Indian government aims to achieve 30% gross enrolment which will mean providing 40 million  
university places an increase of 14 million in six years.  
) Quality of Education - Higher education in India does not match with the global quality standards,  
our government and educational institutions tried to increased quality education. They plan for  
best admission, brochure, purchase good number of books and journal in the library, enhance  
ultra-modern campus etc. but there is a problem of higher educated high satisfied staff with  
resources. So, the poor-quality teaching cannot enhance student’s capacity for global level.  
) Content of higher education curricula - In the field of higher education the 1999 election manifesto  
of National Democratic Alliance (NDA) include a section entitled ‘Education for All’. When BJP  
kept control, they tried to involve various scheme and policy. UGC focus on skill development  
education. Our curricula do not support the market abilities of students.  
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) Constraints on research capacity - There are few opportunities for interdisciplinary and  
multidisciplinary working, lack of early stage research experience, a weak ecosystem of innovation  
and low levels of including engagement areconstraints of research.  
) Funding – Funding of higher education is a responsibility of central and state government but in  
the allocation of grant for different state. It shows priorities and negotiation UGC tried to maintains  
raise of funding but there are some problems related to funding which are challenges for future.  
) Uneven growth and access to opportunity - India has ethnic diversity. There are more than 300  
languages spoken in the country.Today, English is a global language but some state supports  
their own language in higher education and they suffer. So, multidimensional inequalities of  
Indian socio-cultural is a challenge of future in higher education in India.  
) Privatization of education - The cost of private institution is very high for poor students. In the  
rural and tribal area there are not educational accessible i.e. internet, library, couching class etc.  
so they have to spend their money for higher education. So, the competitive pressure on students  
and parents forces them to opt for private tuitions and training to supplement the higher education  
the government and grant in aid collage will have challenges to maintain their standard up to  
level of reputed private college and universities.  
) Research Publication - Research publication of reputed journal or referred journal is accepted,  
now because of this compulsion there are some agencies and publication, who take money from  
the researcher. It cannot promote quality of research publication but numbers off article/paper  
only. Teachers who have good quality of writing research article they face problems for their  
promotion. So, in future research publications are one of the serious challenges to the growth of  
higher education in India.  
0)Brain-Drain – Brain drain is a challenge of Indian higher education. In globalized economy in  
areas that require highly qualified professionals. Today many IIT graduates well trained  
technocrats.IIM, MBA and those who are from the fields of science and technology they obtain  
degree from India and worked in abroad. Even after graduate they choose master degree not in  
India. They dedicated their intellectuals and work for abroad. The present system of higher  
education does not serve the purpose of reserve brain drain but increase brain drain.  
11)Online Education - Online education is acceptable at all over the world. It helps for Improving  
quality of education, improve Accessibility reduce the cost of education.  
2)Inadequate financing for state higher education Institutions - In India state universities cater  
to a large number of students, they face severe constraints in terms access to finance, particularly  
in relation to central institutions. The source of funding for state universities include plan and Non-  
plan grants from state governments, funding from UGC and other government project.  
3)Issues Related to government - Government of India also face issues relating to inadequate  
financing, ineffective planning at the state level and lack autonomy etc. and helpful for time  
management also but in India in rural and tribal area where there are no facilities for electricity  
and internet to change traditional method to online education is a great challenge for new generation.  
International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
Suggestion for improving quality of higher education  
There are some suggestions and expectation from Teachers, Parents, Students, Government, Industry  
and educational institutions.  
) New Vision  
India should realize that humanity stands today at the head of new age of a large synthesis  
knowledge, for that it is needed to overall and integrated upliftment of society.  
) Learning Society  
Society is a mirror of learning higher education should give priorities to learn various aspects of  
development of society.  
) Promote incentives to Teachers  
Industry and students are expecting specialized courses to be offered, so that they get the latest  
and best education and they are also industry established and employable of academic incentives  
should be provided to teachers and researchers to make these professionals more attractive for  
the younger generation.  
4) Academic Connection with Industry  
Industry and academic connect necessary to ensure curriculum and skills in line with requirements  
higher education should give.  
5) To Mobilized Resources  
Effective measures will have to be adopted to mobilized resources for higher education. Higher  
education needs to relate the fee structure to the student’s capacity. Government should mobilize  
fund for research and innovative practice.  
6) Student’s centered Education  
Students-centered education and employment of dynamic method of education will require from  
teachers’ new attitudes and new skills. Less stress, self-study and personality development of  
students help future development of nation.  
7) Job Oriented Course  
Present Day education neither imparting true knowledge of life and nor improving talent of a  
student, so it is needed to combination of Arts, Computer and business skills. Job oriented  
courses are useful for the future. To provided knowledge and skills courses lead to ambition and  
achievement of the students.  
8) Development of Individual Personality  
Some young students felt that Recent higher education is boring and monotonous and  
frustrating.Parents and teachers should guide students in proper way so they can achieve  
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wonderful things in Sports, Music, Dance, Painting etc. Science and technology will encourage  
them but for this it is necessary that those student’s achieve excellence they should get fellowship  
and free for fees.  
) Quality Development  
Quality depends on its functions and activities of teaching, research, education institutions should  
create academic environment. It also requires that it should be characterized by international  
dimensions. Quality education leads mobility of a teacher and students at national level.  
0) World Class Education  
Indian Government and educational institution should aspire for the international standard in  
education. They should offer courses of studies to foreign students so we can take advantages  
of globalization process.  
1) Improvement of Research  
Research development activities of different university should focus very professional. Those  
who are talented and meritorious students, we should encourage them through fellowship and  
teaching assistantship with stipends.  
2) To increase world class universities and educational Institutions  
National knowledge commission recommended 1500 universities by 2015, so, that gross enrolment  
ratio increases to 15 percent. If we want to reach 30Percent, we should increase Universities and  
13) High-tech libraries and infrastructure  
For Global higher education in future university and college have a good collection of books it  
should be online and, in the campus, infrastructure should be high tech.  
14) Reformation of examination  
All most university started semester system and choice-based credit system but it should be  
continuous assessment of student’s performance.  
The demand for higher education in India has increased. There is a significant progress in Indian  
higher education. In future, India will progress with young blood, for this we should plan for quality  
education not only quantitative growth of education. In future, there will be many challenges to Indian  
higher education, so, we should take action, plan for highly educated, skilled people, so that we can  
transfer our country from developing nation to developed nation.  
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Dahlman, C.& Utz, A. (2005).India and the Knowledge Economy:Leveraging strengths and  
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GoI. (1968).National Policy on Education.Ministry of Education. Government of India. New Delhi  
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MHRD(2006) Annual Report, Ministry of Human Resource Development. Department of Secondary  
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*Associate Professor & Head, Department of Sociology, S.L.U. Arts And H. and P. Thakore Commerce  
College for women, Ellisbridge, Ahmedabad-380006. (Gujarat)