Magazine 2014
International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
Rekha Kaklotar  
Lijjat Papad is an exceptionally successful story of entrepreneurship started 54 years ago in 1959. In  
962, the name Lijjat (Guiarati word meaning “tasty”) was chosen by the group for its products. The  
organization was named Shri Mahila Griha Udyog Lijjat Papad. Shri Mahila Griha Udyog Lijjat Papad,  
or Lijjat, is an organization that has acted as a catalyst in empowering poor urban and rural women  
across India during the last five decades. Starting as a small group of seven women, today Lijjat has  
more than 45,000 members in 67 branches and 35 divisions all over India in across 17 states. Only  
women can become members of Lijjat, and all of its members, addressed as “sisters,” own the  
organization. The ‘papad-making’ industries of India have provided ample opportunity of employment  
for the women workers of low socio-economic class. In this study an attempt has been made to find  
out the development of papad making units in rural areas of Amareli district as well as growth aspect  
of women employed with Lijjat papad. The case study is based on primary and secondary data. It  
includes 50 sample size of Savarkundala town of Amareli district. This study analysis about primary  
information, income and employment related information, reason for doing work, other benefits, opinion  
about management, etc.  
Keywords : Empowerment, Income, Lijjat Papad, Women.  
Papad is a popular and tasty food item in the Indian diet since many centuries. It is essentially a wafer-  
like product, round in shape and made from dough of powdered pulses, spices, powdered chilly and  
salt. Variety of pulses and proportion of pulses and spices varies from region to region depending  
upon preferences of local people whereas certain varieties are popular on a larger  
Papad is a part of Indian dish anywhere we go. Recently, it has become and essential part of dish even  
in America, England and other Western countries.  
All Punjabi dishes come with Papad. It is unimaginable to fathom a company’s development and  
monetary progress based on a single thing- Papad. However, this is stark reality that Lijjat Papad has  
done it successfully. Once the company started running it never regressed. Its progress is astounding.  
Objectives of this Study  
To study the development of Papad industries in rural areas of Amareli district.  
To identify the growth aspect of women employed with Lijjat Papad.  
Research Methodology  
Primary and secondary data used for this research study. The researcher prepared a questionnaire of  
questions related to Papad making industries for collecting primary information and secondary  
information collected through articles, websites, reference books and news paper cuttings. Hence,  
this is a survey-based research. Primary data collected during Oct-Nov 2013.It include 50 sample size  
of Savarkundala town of Amareli district.  
Historic Development Of Lijjat Papad  
Lijjat was the brain child of seven semi-literate Gujarati housewives from Mumbai. The seven women  
were Jaswantiben, Parvatiben, Ujamben, Banuben., Laguben, Jayaben and one more lady whose  
name is not known. The women borrowed Rs. 80 from Chaganlal Karamsi Parekh, a member of the  
Servants of India Society and a social worker. On March 15, 1959, they gathered on the terrace of their  
building and started with the production of four packets of Papads. They started selling the Papads to  
a known merchant in Bhuleshwar. Initially, the women were making two different qualities of Papads, in  
order to sell the inferior one at a cheaper rate. The group got considerable publicity through word of  
mouth and articles in vernacular newspapers. This publicity helped it increase its membership.  
International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
In 1962, the name Lijjat (Guiarati word meaning “tasty”) was chosen by the group for its products. The  
organization was named Shri Mahila Griha Udyog Lijjat Papad. By 1962-63, its annual sales of Papads  
touched Rs. 1.82 1akh. Lijjat has an annual turnover of around Rs. 6.50 billion (over 100 million USD)  
in 2010, with Rs. 290 million in exports. It provides employment to around 45,000 people. Lijjat is  
headquartered in Mumbai and has 67 branches and 35 divisions all over India.  
In the 1980s and 1990s, Lijjat started attracted attention of foreign visitors and officials. Lijjat started  
exporting its products in the United Kingdom, the United States, the Middle East, Singapore, the  
Netherlands Thailand, and other countries.  
Management Structure of Lijjat  
The organization is entrusted to a managing committee of twenty one members, including the President,  
the Vice-President, two secretaries, and two treasures. Sanchalikas are in-charge of various branches  
and divisions. Each branch has a committee eleven member-sisters, again chosen by consensus. The  
central office at Mumbai previously coordinated the activities of various branches. But, as the organization  
grew, the authority was decentralized in terms of work and sharing of profits at the branch level. However,  
the Sanchalikas still need the managing committee’s approval before they undertake any new project  
or activity. All the branches follow the same set of instructions and have similar accounting system.  
Lijjat has branches in seventeen Indian states.  
Lijjat follows its own financial accountability principle. There is no credit method for running operations  
in the organization. Every payment is done on a daily basis, except for the outside supply of raw  
material. Profits and losses are shared equally among the members of a given branch. The cost of  
national-level advertising is borne by all branches and divisions, depending on their individual production  
Limitation of this Study  
l This study includes the rural areas of Amareli district of Saurashthra.  
l The analysis of this study depends on answer given by female labourer of Papad making units.  
l Broad study of this research is not possible due to limitation of expression.  
An Analysis Survey and Study Of Papad Making Units  
This study was carried out of the fifty samples of Papad-making industries of Amareli district of  
Saurashthra. In Amareli district many women’s doing Papad making activity in rural area. But in  
Savarkundala town Papad making activity running by institution which was connected with Mumbai  
but at present it is working separately. At least 60 to 70 women are working here but all are doing  
this activity their own house not in institution. They collecting their raw material from this institution  
between 7.30 to 8.30A.M and returning after completion of Papad making work as a same day but  
before 2.00 P.M.  
This analysis has been divided into the following four sections.  
. Primary Information Of the Women In Papad Industries  
Primary information of employee helps to know family background, standard of living, their thinking  
and social status of employees.  
Age is one of the factor in knowing the importance and value of empowerment level among women.  
Papad-making there is not a single woman under 17. Out of a total of 50 female samples there are 28  
56%) between ages 18 to 30, 14(28%) between 31 to 40, and 08 (16%) above 40 years of age.  
One can easily understand how much burden of earning is imposed on women in a family by knowing  
the number of family members. Of total 25(50%) women’s have 4 family members, 22(44%) women  
labourers have 5 to 7 members in their family. Families more than 7 members are 3 (6%). This shows  
awareness toward family planning among these members.  
Education is directly concerned with job, work or occupation which makes them confident to face  
contingencies. In Papad-making there are 12 (24%) illiterate, 10(20%) seventh pass, 19(38%) under  
2 std. and 09 (18%) are Graduates. The biggest number of illiteracy is among Papad-making members.  
International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
Marital status was another matter of survey. Among Papad-making members 49 (98%) are married  
and 1 (2%) unmarried. this indicates 98% are married and have family commitments. These women’s  
are working hard and making themselves self –reliance, self-confident and self-dependent. All are  
working to support their families.  
. A Survey Of Employment and Income Based On these Units  
Self industry is basically an economic activity. Working women are especially self-employment and  
income is the prime concern of all industries. Papad making industry among women is an extra-  
income activity among housewives and educated women. Most of these women their self-employment  
is a Supplementary economic activity to support the family. They do not have enough time at their  
disposal entirely to be devoted to these economic activities. Hence they utilize their leisure in earning  
half of a loaf with major earning members in their families.  
The following Table shows Monthly Income earned by these women through their auxiliary economic  
TABLE-1: Monthly Income during 2012-2013  
Monthly Income (in Rs.)  
Below 500  
No. of Female  
501 to 1000  
1001 to 1500  
1501 to 2000  
2001 to 2500  
Above 2500  
Source: Primary data  
As above table show that there are 23(46%) women who earn more then Rs.2500 monthly. Wages are  
of different kinds that are availed to workers and there are different factors responsible for it. Some  
workers are paid less or more depending upon the quality and quantity (hours) of their work.  
Benefits other than wages  
Generally, workers of unorganized sector not getting any kinds of benefits other than wages. Here try  
to get information that which kinds of benefits getting by this workers. No such benefits are given to  
these workers because they are all not government servant. As this organization grew, the authority  
was decentralized in terms of work and sharing of profits at the branch level. So, all female workers are  
getting benefits of profit and loss of this institution, also institution providing them bonus, gift, tour  
facility etc.  
International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
The following Table shows Benefits other than Wages offered to them.  
TABLE-2: Benefits Other than Wages  
Other Benefits  
No. of Female  
Source: Primary data  
We can see from this Table that workers in Papad-making get benefits other than Wages. Since they  
are not united and they have not anything to do with government in so far as their wages concerned,  
they do not get any benefits. Even otherwise, for those who get other benefits, it depends upon the  
conduct of workers for availing other benefits aforementioned. Workers in Papad Making not getting  
work for a whole month, they have to remain workless for 10 to 15 days. In other words they have to  
work only for half of the year (6 Months).  
Cottage industry workers do not generally get sufficient income from their work. Hence, they have to  
rely on other sources of income. Moreover, they do not find industrial work throughout the year. The  
remuneration of their work also keeps on changing. The wages depend also upon the mental-setup of  
the worker with the management. These are some of the reasons which constantly put the workers in  
check. The following were the answers given by the workers to the question:  
Table-3: “Do you get Sufficient Income from your Work?”  
No. of  
Not sure  
Source: Primary data  
International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
From above table we can say that In Papad-making there are only 30 workers (out of 50) who are  
economically satisfied With this insufficient work and wages they are always in search of other temporary  
labour and job works in order to support their families.  
Man is the main earning member in the families of all these workers. But very often his income is not  
sufficient for running a family for many reasons. These women workers believe in the economic stability  
of their families by doing other labour works. It includes domestic chores of others, farm-labouring,  
and temporary house-works during marriage season, etc. These are other than their usual work in  
Papad-making. Here is a Table that shows other sources of income of these workers families along  
with the income they usually get out of it.  
TABLE-4: Incomes from other sources (Year 2012-2013)  
No. of  
In Rs.)  
Below 50.000  
50,001 to 100,000  
100001 to 150000  
150001 to 200000  
Above 200000  
Source: Primary data  
Above table show that 35(70%) of female families earning not more then 1 lakh and their family have  
need to other income source. For providing support to their family female doing these kinds of activity.  
In rural area agriculture is the main source of income for rural people due to lack of other employment  
opportunity. Also this income is not enough for running life. So, it is necessary for female to search  
other source of income. In this research 37(74%) females are working for support their family. This  
table shows the reason for doing this activity.  
TABLE-5: Reasons for doing this activity  
Reason for doing this activity  
Economically independent  
Support to family  
No. of female  
Spent leisure time  
Social status  
Source: Primary data  
International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
As per above table average 74% of the sample size has taken employment of rolling Papad to support  
family and 12% to become economically independent. Some of the reasons for this type of responses  
are that maximum numbers of respondents are financially and economically weak and their foremost  
requirement is to satisfy the basic necessities, next comes social satisfaction.  
. Opinions About The Management  
Any business or industry immensely rests on its management. The management’s role is decisive  
factor in any industries. Manager’s attitude, behavior with worker and decision making make active or  
week to their workers. Here is attempt to know opinions about the women managers who run Papad-  
They are all very experienced workers first and then they have become managers. Most of them  
have a field-experience of more than 15 years to about 42 years.  
Generally speaking, technology is the least exercised in industries. In fact, in many ways it negates  
technology. But in modern times, no industry can develop without technology. So the management  
in all the concerned study have made at one or the other stages use of technology. It enhances  
their management of time and work. It has also enhanced more productivity in less time. They are  
using technology in accounting.  
Products of Papad making industry require a particular sort of strategy for marketing and selling.  
The managements of these industries try to advertise their products through local newspapers.  
They also try to reach every house by personally visiting at intervals.  
There are regional, national and international agencies such as Amreli District Cooperative Bank,  
State Bank of India, and the NABARD from which they procure necessary loans and subsidies  
with an affordable repayment schemes with varying interest between 1 to 2 % on amount. They  
also avail 5 % subsidies and grants form Amreli District Cooperative Bank and the NABARD for  
the development of their business.  
. Survey Results and Suggestions  
Researcher prepared many other questions and collected data from the selected 50 workers on such  
Questions as (1) How many days do you work in a month in this industry? (2) Do you get wages  
according to work only or quality of the work? (3) Do you work manually or with the help of machine?  
4) When you get your wages? (5) Do your family-members give you support? (6) Do you get enough  
wages by this work? (7) Can you manage both responsibilities: Your occupation and duty for your  
children and family? (8) Do you work by choice or by need? (9) What actions do you expect from the  
Government? These and many other pertinent questions were asked to the workers. The sole purpose  
of the research is only then served when it is useful at all levels of the Society and the Institution.  
Un-married women are very less in a sample of 50. Married are more as they have family  
commitments to be performed.  
Education level is very low and as such it is the most important feather of empowerment hat. An  
educated woman teach whole of the family and brings a revolutionary change in society.  
More number of women’s are engrossed in the activity of rolling Papad as this can be performed  
at home during their leisure time.  
Support to family and economical independence is high as maximum numbers of respondents  
are financially and economically weak and their requirement is to satisfy basic necessities.  
International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
Change is seen in sense of responsibility followed by good recognition and participative decision  
making. The reason is the confidence build up because of earning capability. Other social factors  
are very low as these women belonged to the disadvantaged section of society so the driving  
force is satisfying basic needs.  
The development of Shri Mahila Griha Udyog Lijjat Papad should be taken in broader framework of  
women empowerment. The organization is responsible for empowering women by the way of promoting  
self –reliance, self-confident, self-dependent and educating them to realize their fundamental rights.  
Lijjat organization has taken a step in this direction in both condition and position of women. Lijjat has  
made women financially stable to such an extent that after taking their rightful share for their livelihood,  
they are contributing generously to societal cause. Lijjat as a ‘Trust’ is a service organization engage in  
serving poor and destitute and to empower women for social development. India is committed to the  
cause of empowerment of women. However, the journey towards progress is long and arduous.  
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Lijjat Patrika Vol. 17, Issue 4, April 1996 p.3.  
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Madhulata Anand (2011), “Women Empowerment (Legal and Education Perspective)”, Vital  
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Organization: About Us”. Lijjat. Section=7.  
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A SWOT Analysis, Prabandhan: Indian Journal of Management, Volume -3, Number-3, March  
Dr. Rekha Kaklotar : Assistant Professor, Dept. of Economics, Maniben Nanavati Women’s College,