Magazine 2015
International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
Neha Gada  
The shift of income flow from Agriculture to Industry was noticed after 1960 but today major contributor  
to the National income is the service sector all over the world. There has been significant rise in information  
and communication industries globally after 1990’s over the other service all across the globe. The I.T.-  
B.P.O. sector in India aggregated revenues of US$99. 1 billion and US$100 billion in FY2012, wehere  
export and domestic revenue stood at US$69. 1 billion and US$31.7 billion respectively. Due to recession  
and Euro zone Crisis in 2009 the Italian ICT market was worth $86 bilion reflecting a decrease of 4.2%  
in Euro currency over the previous year registered by IT with 8.1% of decrease and telecommunication  
with 2.3% of decrease.  
The comparative study is undertaken between two countries India and Italy on rise of infertility in Women  
at I.T. sector based on secondary date to attain the objective of studying the common health problems  
of women at I.T. Sector in both the countires that would help enhance the growth of potential Women  
workforce at I.T. Industries of both the countries. The study so undertaken defines the I.T. Sector  
contribution to National Income of both the countries. The problems so faced by the women at work in  
both the countires. THe Findings and conclusion drawn from the inferences of date collected from  
articles, e-resources, journals, newspapers, etc. This study intends to thelp women fulfill their desire of  
motherhod with limiting complications due to the pressure of work caused at the I.T. Sector in bothe the  
Key Words : Gross Domestic Products (G.D.P.), Euro Zone crisis, Socio-Economic pressure, Information  
Technology (I.T.) Sector, Business Process Outsourcing (B.P.O.), Labour Market, Work Stress, Hormonal  
Imbalance, Mono-Pose, Career Priorities.  
Since past two decades there has been a drastic change in composition of National Income all over  
the world. The shift of income flow from Agriculture to Industry was noticed after 1960 but today major  
contributor to the National income is the service sector all over the world. The service sector growth is  
witnessed due to rise in services like banking, insurance, transportation, B.P.O, information and  
communication, etc. but after launch of Microsoft as an operating system (1975). There has been  
significant rise in information and communication industries globally after 1990’s over the other service.  
Indian Economy and I.T. Industries  
India stands seventh in the world by its Nominal GDP income growth of over 7% on an average over  
the last two decades. It is classified as ‘Newly Industrialized Country’ and ranks third largest nation by  
purchasing power parity. The fastest growing Indian economy has replaced China from the last quarter  
of 2014. The Indian economy has shown potential to be the third largest economy of the world. According  
to World Bank’s growth outlook, India topped the economic growth for the first time by 7.3% in 2014-  
015 and is expected to be at 7.5-8.3% by 2015-16.  
The Information Technology Industry in India has gained a brand identity due to I.T. and I.T.E.S. The  
I.T.–I.T.E.S. industry has two major components: I.T. services and Business Process Outsourcing  
B.P.O).The I.T.–I.T.E.S. sector contributes substantially to the increase of GDP from 1.2% in FY1998 to  
.5% in FY2012; also increase in employment, and exports. According to National Association of  
Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM),the I.T.–B.P.O. sector in India aggregated revenues of  
US$100 billion in FY2012, where export and domestic revenue stood at US$69.1 billion and US$31.7  
billion respectively. The major cities that account for about nearly 90% of this sectors exports are  
Bangalore, Hyderabad, Chennai, Delhi, Mumbai, etc. The Top Five Indian IT Services Providers are  
Tata Consultancy Services, Infosys, Wipro, Cognizant and HCL Technologies.  
International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
Moreover the service sector annual growth rate has been above 9% since 2001 contributing to 57% of  
GDP in 2012-13. Indian Economy has capitalized as major exporter of I.T., B.P.O and Software services  
with about US $167 billion in 2013-14. The Indian I.T. industries have continued to be the largest  
private sector employer till today, with a set-up of fourth largest I.T. hub in 2014-15 with over 3100  
Economic diversity of Italy  
Italy has a diversified industrial economy with high gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and  
developed infrastructure. In 2011 Italy were the 8 largest economy in the world, the 4 largest in  
Europe and the 3 largest in the Eurozone in terms of nominal GDP in US $2.198 trillion and the 10  
largest economy in the world. The main industries in Italy contributing towards national income are  
communication, steel, machineries, motor vehicles, textiles, home appliances, fashion, pharmaceuticals,  
chemicals, etc.  
However, Italy was hit hard by the Economic-crisis in 2007-2011. The national economy shrank by  
.76% during the whole period, totalizing seven quarters of recession. According to the Eurostat,  
Italian Public Debt stood at 116% of GDP in 2010, ranking as the second biggest debt ratio after  
Greece (with 126.8%). However, the biggest chunk of Italian public debt is owned by national subjects  
and relatively high levels of private savings and low levels of private indebtedness are seen as making  
it the safest among Europe’s struggling economies. More specifically, Italian economy is weakened  
by the lack of infrastructure development, market reforms and research investment, and also high  
public deficit. Italy suffered particular due to the high rate of corruption, an excessive state  
interventionism, and a strong Labor law.  
Considering the sector wise contribution of Italy’s GDP is Agriculture- 1.8%; Industry- 24.9%; Services-  
3.3% (2010 estimates). The country had 25.05 million of workforce in 2010 of which sector wise  
contribution was services (65.1%), industry (30.7%), and agriculture (4.2%) (2005). Depicting more or  
less similar sector wise GDP structure as that of India.  
I.T. Sector in Italy  
ASSINFORM is the Italian Association of the major Information & Communication Technology Companies  
and represents a major reference point for the Italian ICT industry as it is covers Computer,  
Communication, Content and Consumer Technologies at a top priority. Italy is Europe’s 4 largest  
market for the IT industry whereas IT is Italy’s 4 most important Industry comprising of 97000 active  
companies and 390000 employees. Italy is also Europe’s 3 largest market for the communication  
equipment and service industry and 2 largest in advance mobile communications market in Western  
Due to recession and Eurozone Crisis in 2009 the Italian ICT market was worth $86 billion reflecting a  
decrease of 4.2% in Euro currency over the previous year registered by IT with 8.1 % of decrease and  
telecommunication with 2.3% of decrease. To overcome this problem ASSINFORM has recently entered  
into agreement with 2 major Italian Banks for favoring finance of $1.2 billion to the Italian companies  
desirous of investing in new IT projects. Amongst the most recent programs is the “Industry 2015”  
innovation program for the adoption of advanced IT solutions in “Made in Italy” sector, which provide  
grants of $280 million to the companies and research centers.  
Aim and Objective of the study  
The aim of the research is to study the trend of infertility in women in I.T industries and to ascertain  
health initiatives to conquer the similar problem of infertility in two extremely diverse socio-economic-  
cultural countries India and Italy. This would help us in creating a new sphere balanced with health and  
career amongst ambitious young women at IT of both the countries.  
The objectives of the Research study are divided namely into Specific and General, according to their  
impact of the study on both demographically different locations India and Italy.  
International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
Specific Objectives to be studied at both the countries individually  
To study the nature of occupational impact on fertility of women.  
To study the health problems of women in I.T. Sector.  
To study the causes and effects of work pressure (mental) on women’s fertility.  
General objectives to help both the countries find similarities in confronting problems  
and solutions,  
To establish healthy work culture for women.  
To enhance the growth of potential Women workforce in I.T. Industries of both the countries.  
To help women fulfill their desire of motherhood with limiting complications due to the pressure of  
work caused at the I.T. Sector.  
Research Methodology  
The scope of this research study is limited to the women’s working in the IT services in Mumbai for  
India. The Research study is limited to the I.T. Service Industry alone whereas B.P.O is not selected.  
For the purpose of the study secondary data is selected with the use of research articles, Books,  
journal, websites, e-resources, Newspapers, etc.  
Finding and conclusion:  
The study reveals some common status and problem faced by women in I.T. sector of both economically  
diverse countries at work which are represented individually for attaining specific objectives of women  
at two different ends. The findings so made are based on inferences drawn from data collected from  
articles, e- resources, journals, newspapers, etc.  
Women employment in I.T. Industries in India  
India is a vast country with a very high population of more than one billion. The sex ratio is 940:1000  
2011) which rose by 0.75% since the last census (2001). Unlike this, the total women participation at  
work in India is about 40% of which urban sector contribution is just 20% which is too low when  
compared with other countries of the world. The women participation at B.P.O contributes to about  
0% as most of the women prefer part–time or contractual jobs to maintain work life balance. . More  
openings for undergraduate and graduate women are available B.P.O’s. The male to Female ratio of  
B.P.O. employment is 31:69 which shows dominance purely by women.  
The enrolment of women in higher education is about 40% which signifies more women are ready to  
pursue higher education. This has led to a socio-economic change in young women and they have  
started practicing over more full time jobs in I.T., HR, Finance, etc. Moreover I.T. companies in India  
provide indiscriminating gender policies for job placements. About 25% of women are employed at I.T.  
Sector based on the Education, Talent and Operational Skills. One of the giants and Indian number  
one I.T. Service based Company namely Tata Consultancy Services Limited employ about 31% of  
women, followed by Wipro and Infosys about 28% each. The Job involve good pay packages, pick  
drops, incentives, personnel management appraisals and better exposure. The work does not involve  
rigorous physical exercises and so could suit women but requires constant psychological balance and  
mental exercises.  
International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
The I.T. sector therefore is very challenging along with pure operational and function challenge women  
have to face many physical and mental problems due to the typography of the work and job requirement.  
The Italian Women labor market in I.T.  
On an average, about 70 % of women aged 26-54 years old are employed over 85% of men in 2003.  
Italy stands out for a gender employment gap of over 20% which is much lower than that of India. The  
total employment under service sector is significant. Of the total women employment, service sector  
contributes for about 81% of women employment over 57% of male employment. This depicts  
dominance of women over men mostly as they opt for part time jobs. The women contribution in ICT  
services in 2003 was 28% which helped creation of ICT jobs until 2001, but it had less contribution of  
women at management and leadership position, as in India. Women currently are underrepresented in  
the ICT sector as the enrolment rate was below 25% in 2004 from which only 27.8% of computer and  
information systems managers were women only 9.6% were hardware engineers, only 5.8% of senior  
academic positions in engineering and technology field were held by women.  
Some common problems faced by women of I.T. industries in India  
Some common problems faced by women of I.T. industries like vision problem-eye sight problem,  
back aches, headaches, muscular problem, joint pains, sciatica, stress, etc. Stress creates further  
women specific problems like hormonal imbalance, problem related to delay or irregular menstrual  
cycle, amenorrhea or mono-pose at an early age of 35 to 40 years and above all which is notice to rise  
significantly is infertility. Infertility in women has risen by 50% since 1980’s adhering to an alarming  
rise. The Study of 125 women revealed in Times of India on 8 March 2013 states, above 90 % of  
women working in Mumbai at call centers and incorporate jobs were suffering from irregularity of  
menses (scanty or prolonged). 35% of executives interviewed were already suffering from amenorrhea,  
5% of women tried at least IVF once without any result. It was also observed that all of them had high  
level of the hormone cortisol which is caused mainly due to stress. Most of the women in B.P.O. are  
prone to addictions like smoking, drinking, strong sexual and physical relations. Their job timings vary  
according to the shifts which cause change in their eating, drinking, and sleeping scheduled pattern  
leading to psychological pressure (stress) and hormonal imbalance.  
The I.T. Companies mostly serve international vendor base. The employees get opportunity to work  
from on-site or off-shores. The couple’s family life gets disturbed due to cross cultural and environmental  
changes. Fear of getting settled, adopting new area and client, client direct pressure at on- site and  
ignorance about the countries policies would also increase pressure (stress).  
Stress could also be caused due to long working hours, constant under pressure situation, unrealistic  
deadlines to be met, peer pressure, promotion and job security pressure, maintenance of work life  
balance, etc. Other reason could be due to socio-economic pressures; women prefer to complete  
their education and pursue their careers before starting a family, thereafter coping with family life and  
career priorities, domestic violence and increase of responsibilities. This sometimes means that  
childbearing is postponed till women are in their late twenties or early thirties causing natural reduction  
in fertility of women. This vicious cycle stress leading to infertility and infertility would cause stress.  
Basic Infertility problem are caused in Italian women  
The basic fertility problems are faced by Italian women due to rise in the age –the average age of  
women to conceive first child is after 31 years of age, too much of Alcohol and Drugs consumption, too  
much of Smoking habit, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, underweight or Overweight, Dietary Problems,  
International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
Stress relating to inflation and rise in price level, job insecurity but to cost cutting and recession at  
European Countries due to Eurozone crisis, Stopped Transfer Payment problems by government, etc.  
Due to lack of executive positions and wide gender gap, the women do face many physical and  
psychological problems at work. All these causes lead to the infertility and related problem as discussed  
The number of children that would be born to a woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing  
years and bear children in accordance with current age-specific fertility rates for Italy is 1.4 in 2010 and  
.6 for India in 2011.  
It could be concluded that women in Italy enjoy better state than women of India, as they are more  
independent and confident, so pressure of work is bit less as much is faced by Indian Women. The  
women do have problem relating over indulgence of alcohols, cigarettes, caffeine, sex etc. which is  
commonly entering into young women’s of India too but less when compared to Italy only because of  
socio-cultural taboo. Due to late marriages and delayed childbearing about 30 to 40 years of age, the  
women in Italy do also suffer through the common problem of infertility.An attempt can be made by  
timely counselling, meditation, avoiding drugs and alcohol, indulging in healthy eating practices, etc.  
to minimize infertility problems.  
http://www. eale. nl/Conference2010/Programme/PaperscontributedsessionsA/  
Frankenhaeuser, Stress and Opportunities,1991 with ISBN-978-1-4613-6651-5.  
Iyer Malathy, “Stress At Work Taking Toll On Fertility,” The Times of India, Mumbai, Friday, March8,  
Ms. Neha Gada, Assistant Prof. of Accountancy, M.N.W.College, Mumbai.