Magazine 2015
International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
Jasmine Sheeba, Rexlin Jose  
Today’s world is empowered by information technology. There is nothing which is untouched with the use  
of technology. Education sector is no exception to it. In this context, an attempt has been made to see the  
effectiveness of multimedia package on achievement and retention among higher secondary students in  
Genetics. This is an experimental study with pretest-posttest Equivalent Group Design. A sample of 50  
higher secondary students was used for the study. The investigators applied self-developed Achievement  
test in Genetics (Biology) to assess the achievement and retention of the subjects. Data were analyzed  
using ANCOVA and t-test to determine the performance by comparing the mean scores. Findings revealed  
that students taught through multimedia package showed significant improvement in their achievement in  
Genetics than the students taught through Conventional Method. The findings also implied that the multimedia  
package had the power to make the students hold high retention than their counterparts.  
Key Words : Multimedia Package, Genetics, Achievement, Retention.  
Education is a beacon for mankind; it is the right direction to surge. Education is an engine for the  
growth and progress of any society. It is a powerful tool for social change, social mobility and transfers  
the morals, values of culture to the next generation. Education is a lifelong process and it permeates  
every aspect of an individual’s life (Suciu,2000). Education is the process to shape the quality of life  
which in turn enhances the quality of the society and the universe as a whole (Rosca,2006). The  
progress of any country depends upon the quality of education offered and its implementation of  
technological practices. Education in India has undergone various phases and stages of development  
starting from the vedic age to the post-independent period. At all stages of development, there was a  
concern for bringing in quality education reflecting on the practical and technical aspects in education.  
The dynamics of modern technology have created a complete new world of learning in recent times.  
The novelty and newness always generates initial responses and interest in every human mind (John  
Bransford,2000). In the techno era, the conventional method is not sufficient to arouse interest among  
the students and does not meet up to the intellectual, psychological and emotional needs of the students  
in the new millennium. Educating students through innovative ways and techniques channelize them  
towards the urge to learn more and more, which in turn facilitate sustainable development  
Kauffman&Sternberg, 2010). The world of multimedia technique, smart classroom concept, bag less  
schools, online examination system all appear to be most attractive in the digital era (Daniel, 1999).  
The advent of multimedia technology offers new insight into the learning process, merges multiple  
levels of learning, allows individualized instruction and delivers exciting possibilities to meet the needs  
of 21 century learners.  
Multimedia technology is probably one of the most exciting innovations in the information age. The  
rapid growth of multimedia over the last decade has brought about fundamental changes to computing,  
entertainment and education. Multimedia is a melody sung in harmony with multi-channel and multi-  
modal bits of knowledge and creation (Agarwal, 2007). The ultimate role is to inform, educate and/ or  
entertain all. Multimedia is all pervading, thrilling and involving method of info-edu-tainment with multiple  
facets and long lasting approbation. Multimedia refers to computer – mediated information that is  
presented concurrently in more than one medium, consists of the following elements: text, still graphic  
images, motion, graphic animations, hypermedia, photographs, video and audio i.e., sounds, music  
and narration(Korakkis,2009). Multimedia can support multiple representation of the same piece of  
information in a variety of formats. Learning through multimedia is an active and engaged process,  
and have a powerful impact on the learner’s problem solving abilities and can generate a positive  
effect (Styliars, 2009). Multimedia enables learning more goal- oriented, more participatory, flexible in  
time and space, unaffected by distances and tailored to individual learning styles and increase  
collaboration between teacher and students (Rosa and Preethi, 2012). The importance of multi channel  
International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
communication which confirms that when information is presented by more than one channel, there will  
be an additional reinforcement, resulting in greater retention and improved learning (Ellis, 2004). Multimedia  
offers an excellent alternative to traditional teaching by allowing the students to explore and learn at  
different pace in accordance with their potentiality.  
Multimedia on cognition  
Multimedia that combines text, sound, videos, colourful moving ages, opportunity to connect with real  
people and to participate in real world events provide challenging and authentic content that will enhance  
the cognitive skills of the learners. Multimedia builds up right brain-oriented abstract thinking, scientific  
attitude, reflection, problem solving ability and critical thinking which are the important aspects of learning.  
Multimedia augments ones knowledge and self-confidence and encourages students to take responsibility  
for their learning. It promotes the deepening of understanding of basic principles and promotes the spirit  
of enquiry and accurate observation. Through this innovative multimedia, students develop constructivist  
thinking. They construct their own knowledge and understanding of the world and develop manipulative  
skills. It also enhances individuals to act independently to act purposefully; to think rationally and to  
deal effectively with the environment. This mental capacity or mental energy helps an individual to face  
new challenges and problems of life as successfully as possible.  
Design of Multimedia Package  
In designing a multimedia package, “we should take into the account the fact that learning task need to  
be placed within a specific content of psychological, cognitive & social process (Nathan & Robinson,  
001). Creating the multimedia package is both challenging and exciting. The subject content is broken  
down into small logically discrete instructional steps. Positive examples, related to subject area are  
provided as reinforcement with a text enriched with a static picture or though dynamic videos gathered  
from e-resources. Then the verbal and visual information of subject content are sequentially arranged  
and the required operation, procedure or skills give with appropriate explanation through animation or  
videos or through audio narrations simultaneously. Appropriate Pacing should be provided in  
accordance with cognition, learning styles and skills of the learners.  
Multimedia package based on instructional design theories and psychological principles of learning  
would facilitate self-paced independent learning. Students using web-based programmes rich in  
multimedia with integrated live demonstrations performed significantly better on skill and overall  
competence than their counterparts taught using traditional methods of instruction (Kinshuk, 2000).  
The clarity of expression comprises three processes namely easy and simple language, clearly stated  
objectives. Besides them, provision for reinforcement is identified as the fourth factor contributing to  
effectiveness of multimedia package (Ashok Kumar, 2012). By designing multimedia package, the  
students are challenged to learn more about their chosen subject material and to develop their abilities  
to analyze and draw conclusions from it.  
Need for the study  
As the world moves forwarding the era of innovative technology where learning become borderless,  
enhanced efficiency, competitiveness, productivity, quality and values will take precedence in  
determining our wellbeing and success in the global era. Quality education is universal goal and is  
associated with the developing competency among the learners. A teacher needs to prepare the  
students to learn, work and live successfully in knowledge-based, global society. (Grey Bryce 2006). In  
the techno-era, the rapid growth of biological knowledge is placing its prominence among the science.  
Genetics is the corner stone of modern biology. The molecular aspects of genetics become a central  
importance in the second half of the 20 century with the discovery of DNA structure by Watson and  
Crick and influences societal practices such as disease diagnosis, and treatment, crop production,  
drug development, industrial production, criminal investigation and so on (Nelson & Cox, 2000). However  
many teachers and students regard the topic of genetics as very difficult, both to teach and to learn  
Templin & Fetters, 200) due to the web of complex abstract concepts. The traditional instruction in  
genetics leaves the students an insufficient understanding of recent techniques in genetics with any  
multiple representation encourage rote learning. The role of multimedia based instructional design  
takes on greater responsibility and becomes a critical component to give an accurate and rich picture of  
genetic concepts which are often very hard to grasp from text – based presentation of information  
International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
Kubika Sebitosi, 2007). It will be extremely beneficial to the learner in the contemporary educational  
scenario, to build proficiency, meaningful mental representation and desirable behavioural outcome  
by scaffolding or gradual removal of a tutor’s support and become an independent problem solver.  
The major significance of this study is that it drives the educator and the learners to realize the importance  
of techno-pedagogical practices during the teaching-learning process. This study facilitates the instructor  
in find the “right” technology to support “good” pedagogy.  
Objectives of the Study  
i) To develop a Multimedia Package in Genetics.  
ii) To study the effect of Multimedia Package on achievement in Genetics of higher secondary students  
after experimental treatment.  
iii) To study the effect of Multimedia Package on retention in Genetics of higher secondary students  
after experimental treatment.  
iv) To find out the attitude of students in Genetics after experimental treatment.  
Design of the study  
The present study is an experimental study with pretest-posttest Equivalent Group Design. Achievement  
and Retention were treated as dependent variables while Multimedia Package was treated as  
independent variable in this study. Instructional treatment was studied at two levels namely experimental  
group (E) which was taught Genetics through Multimedia Package and control group (C) which was  
taught Genetics through conventional method.  
The study was carried out on a sample of 50 higher secondary school students of Kanyakumari district.  
The 50 samples were selected after the administration of Intelligence Test. All the 50 students were  
equally divided and formed experimental group (E) and control group (C).  
Tools Used  
The following tools were used for the purpose of collecting data related to different variables covered  
in the study:  
1) Standardized Test: General Intelligence Test for Higher Secondary Students (GIT) by Roma Pal  
Rama Tiwari to measure the intelligence of the students.  
2) Self- Developed Tools: Achievement Test in Genetics and Genetics Attitude Scale.  
Procedure for Data Collection  
Stage- I: Grouping the sample into two equivalent groups  
At this stage, the sample representing the population based on the intelligence test score was divided  
into both control and experimental group. The pre-test scores proved the homogeneity of the two  
Stage- II: Administering treatment to both the groups.  
At this stage, both the control and the experimental groups were given treatments. The control group  
was given treatment through conventional teaching. The experimental group was administered treatment  
through Multimedia Package.  
Stage- III: Conducting post-test and retention test for both the groups.  
At this stage, both the control and experimental groups underwent post-test when the treatment period  
was over. The retention test is conducted to both the sample groups 20 days after the posttest was  
Stage- IV: The Results of the Treatment  
International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
The effectiveness of the multimedia modular approach was found out by the results of the post-test and  
delayed post-test scores.  
Statistical Techniques Used  
Data were analysed by using Mean, Standard Deviation, t test and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA).  
Major Findings of the Study  
The experimental group performed better than control group students in their post test mean scores.  
There is significant difference between Multimedia Package and Traditional learning methods. Hence  
it can be inferred that the achievement level of the students depends upon the method of teaching and  
Difference between the Control and the Experimental Groups in the Overall Posttest Scores of  
*Significant at 1% level  
In the above table, since p value is less than 0.01, the null hypothesis is not accepted at 1% level of  
significance. Hence, it is concluded that there is significant difference between the posttest scores of  
the overall achievement of the control and experimental groups. The mean scores show that the  
experimental group performed better than the control group in the achievement.  
Table: 2  
Difference between the Control and the Experimental Groups in the Overall Posttest Scores of  
Achievement with regard to the Level of Intelligence  
*Significant at 1% level  
In the above table, since p value is less than 0.01 irrespective of the level of intelligence, the null  
hypothesis is not accepted at 1% level of significance. Hence, it is concluded that there is significant  
difference between the control and experimental groups in the posttest with regard to level of intelligence.  
The mean scores show that the experimental group performed better in the posttest scores of  
achievement than the control group irrespective of the level of intelligence.  
International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
The significance of difference between the Control and Experimental Groups in their Overall achievement  
with regard to their level of intelligence is shown in following graph given below:  
Table: 3  
Difference between the Control and Experimental Groups on the Overall Scores of Retention  
*Significant at 1% level  
In the above table, since p value is less than 0.01, the null hypothesis is not accepted at 1% level of  
significance. Hence, it is concluded that there is significant difference in the delayed posttest scores  
between the control and the experimental groups. The mean scores show that the experimental group  
performed better in their achievement than the control group in the retention posttest.  
Table: 4  
Difference between the Control and the Experimental Groups in the Scores of Retention Test  
with regard to the Level of Intelligence  
*Significant at 1% level  
In the above table, since p value is less than 0.01 irrespective of the level of intelligence, null hypothesis  
is not accepted at 1% level of significance. Hence, it is concluded that there is significant difference  
between control and experimental groups in the delayed posttest with regard to the level of intelligence.  
The mean scores show that the experimental group performed better in the retention posttest than the  
control group with respect to the level of intelligence.  
International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
The significance of difference between the control and experimental groups in the retention scores  
with regard to the level of intelligence is shown in the bar diagram.  
Table: 5  
Difference between the before and after treatment of Experimental Group towards the Attitude of  
*Significant at 1% level  
In the above table, since p value is less than 0.01, the null hypothesis is not accepted at 1% level of  
significance. Hence, it is concluded that there is significant difference in the attitude towards Genetics  
of the experimental group before and after the treatment. The mean scores show that the experimental  
group had better attitude towards Genetics after the treatment than before the treatment.  
This is shown in the graphical representation.  
International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
The findings of the study show that the multimedia package is a significant contribution to the process  
of teaching and learning of Genetics in the Indian classrooms. The results of the study reveal that the  
multimedia package can be introduced to the educational institutions especially to the school education  
for the betterment and academic achievement of the students. Multimedia package helps teachers to  
employ a variety of instructional resources and offer students new opportunities to explore important  
ideas or to learn new skills that have relevance to their lives. The implication of multimedia package as  
a tool in school education facilitates to maintain standard and are capable of providing students with  
potential to fulfil the aspiration of tech-savvy society.  
The investigator finds significant difference between the overall posttest scores of the control and the  
experimental groups in the achievement. There is also a significant difference between the posttest  
scores of achievement of the control and the experimental groups with regard to the level of intelligence.  
It shows that the students in the experimental group performed better in the posttest than that of their  
counterparts in the control group and hence the multimedia package was effective to the students.  
This positive result might be due to the effectiveness of multimedia accompanied by videos, pictures,  
colours, music and sounds makes students feel enthusiastic, attracts their attention and makes the  
students learn more efficiently and effectively. This finding is in harmony with the reviewed studies  
Merlin & Nirmala (2014) and Yaspal (2014). The retention test was administered twenty days after the  
posttest to both the sample groups. The scores of the retention test indicated that the performance of  
the experimental group was better than that of the control group with regard to the achievement. This  
show that multimedia can have strong pedagogical effect on mind elicit better understanding of concepts  
and engage the students at a deeper level of learning with more sense of participation and facilitate to  
hold the power of retention for longer period. This result is in agreement with the studies of Prasida &  
Sumathy (2013), Hsiu-Ping (2012), Nicholas (2010) and Aldalah (2010), There is a significant difference  
between the attitude towards genetics of the experimental group before and after the treatment. This  
result in harmony with Helen (2014), Benjamin & Edward (2007), Nwaocha(2010) and Yoag (2012).  
The findings of this experimental study made the investigator to arrive at a conclusion that the multimedia  
package is effective in teaching of genetics and drives the students to acquire better achievement.  
The Ministry of school education will draw up an innovative Multimedia Enrichment programme of  
action to inform, guide and uplift the schools at all levels with respect to the digital trends of the society  
viz., development of well equipped techno-infrastructure, management of the programme, development  
of digital resources, capacity building, monitoring and evaluation of the programme.  
The Directorate of Education define norms, standards, guidelines and frameworks to implement the  
multimedia pedagogy in teaching learning process in schools at all levels. The Directorate of Education  
develop a Multimedia literacy curriculum and establish E- technology lab in all government undertaken  
schools. The Director of school education frequently evaluate the utilization of technology in the process  
of teaching-learning at schools with the assistance of Chief Educational Officers, besides giving  
training in the development of ICT tools, managing and maintaining data bases.  
The educational planners and the developers of curriculum for school education may prepare  
multimedia based resource materials for the teachers so as to foster effective teaching learning process.  
The head master should equip the school with multimedia and made available to teachers and students  
and facilitate innovation in academic process. The head of the school should invite computer experts  
International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
and made arrangements to train teachers to access educational websites relevant to the subject and  
encourage utilizing it properly during instructional delivery.  
Teacher is an essential component for the qualitative improvement of education. Multimedia package  
related to the subject content should be prepared by the teacher by proper accessing and filtering the  
necessary relevant virtual information from the internet and presented to the students in accordance to  
their learning styles and needs of the children. Teacher should engage the students in different educational  
activities by providing school assignments, projects that stimulate them to browse scientific sites, access  
to some useful, educational and amusement sites and guide them to achieve their objectives and satisfy  
their needs.  
Multimedia plays a key role in the modern system of education. Multimedia will provoke radical changes  
in the teaching system because it is a woven combination of text, graphic art, sound, animation and  
video elements. The learners are benefitted in terms of increased quality, relevance, self-pacing, flexibility,  
resulting in greater learner achievement and met the diverse needs. Thus, multimedia is a boon to the  
younger generation as more innovations are made to reduce teaching-learning burdens in the ensuring  
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Ms. Jasmine Sheeba, P. Research Scholar, M.S. University, Tirunelveli.  
Dr. Rexlin Jose, G. Asst. Professor, Dept. of Education, M.S. University, Tirunelveli.