Magazine 2013
International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
RH, VOL. 3 JULY 2013  
Human Deleopment Stretegy  
In India :A New Paradigm  
Beenu Singh  
Development represents a transformation of society, a movement from traditional relations, traditional  
way of thinking, traditional way of dealing with health and education, traditional methods to production to  
more modern way. This paper examines India’s development strategy, and what extent it has be considered  
a success. Account of the size of its population, its cultural and religious diversity, and its wager on  
universal suffrage at the time of Independence in 1947, India has always been central to the debate on  
growth poverty, inequality, and human development. India’s rapid economic growth since the 1980s has  
stimulated further global interest in understanding its complex society. This paper considers the extent to  
which the strategy remains viable for the future, the challenges still faced, and what other strategies’  
might required. This paper argues that to provide convincing explanations to this association we need to  
improve our theoretical and analytic framework in some key areas. There are nature of human development  
strategy and especially the rational for the specific list of human development practices, the nature of  
human development performance and linkage between human development and performace.Human  
development strategy is productive investment embodies in human persons. These include  
skills,abilities,ideals,health,etc,that results from expenditures on education, on the top training  
programms,and medical care are very important aspect of human development strategy. The locus of  
intellectual influence on human development thinking is rapidly shifting from first and second world to  
third world these nations must find the ultimate answer and formulate appropriate strategy.  
Keywords - Analytical Framework, Broad Spectrum, Human Development Strategy, Inequality.  
Everything around you that you call life was made by people that were no smarter than you. And you  
can change it. You can influence it. Once you learn that, you’ll never be the same again.” (Steve Jobs)  
On account of the size of its population, its cultural and religious diversity, and its wager on universal  
suffrage at the time of Independence in 1947, India has always been central to the debate on growth poverty,  
inequality, and human development. India’s rapid economic growth since the 1980s has stimulated further  
global interest in understanding its complex society.  
The human development paradigm is concerned both with building human capabilities (through investment  
in people) and with using those human capabilities more fully (through an enabling framework for growth and  
employment). Human development has four essential pillars: equality, sustainability, productivity and  
empowerment. It regards economic growth as essential, but emphasizes the need to pay attention to its  
quality and distribution, analyses at length its link with human lives and questions its long-term sustainability.  
Human development strategy is productive investment embodies in human persons. These include  
skills,abilities,ideals,health,etc,that results from expenditures on education, on the top training programms,and  
medical care are very important aspect of human development strategy. The locus of intellectual influence on  
human development thinking is rapidly shifting from first and second world to third world these nations must  
find the ultimate answer and formulate appropriate strategy.  
‘Development’ as a multi-dimensional and multi-sectoral process, involving social, economic and political  
change aimed at improving people’s lives. Development processes use and manage natural resources to  
satisfy human needs and improve people’s quality of life.  
The essential features of a human development strategy Which regards human development as the end  
or objective of development. It is a way to fulfil the potential of people by enlarging their capabilities, and this  
necessarily implies empowerment of people, enabling them to participate actively in their own Development.  
Human development is also a means since it enhances the skills, Knowledge, productivity and inventiveness of  
people through a process of human capital Formation broadly conceived. Human development is thus a  
people centred strategy, not a Goods centred or production centred strategy of development. Human  
International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
RH, VOL. 3 JULY 2013  
development is the ultimate objective of economic development. It is also a Means-arguably the best means  
available — for promoting development.  
Purpose – This study was mainly planned to evaluate and compare the HDI of India and Norway relating  
to government policies and their implications and find out loopholes and to know what kind of policy are there  
to improve the conditions of our people.  
The Objectives Of The Study Are:  
To know the meaning of human development strategy and its indicators.  
To study the problems faced in India why India is far behind comparative to developed countries.  
What are the main suggestions for improving human development .It aims to provide solution to enhance  
the human development on basis of descriptive study.  
Design/methodology/approach – All the research work and findings are based on secondary data and  
information published by United Nations Human Development Index , Economic Survey and different sites of  
Internet. Study is descriptive and investigative in nature to explain in details.  
Research Limitations -  
The study is limited to theoretical – cum – published articles regarding nature and movement of country  
because it is a vast.  
The findings and suggestions are only recommendatory in nature and subject to policy makers and  
political condition of the country.  
Relevance to Study  
The present paper focus of the causes and cures of mass human development strategy in India. The  
outcome of the research will have major significance and influence to policy makers. The research is also useful  
to government authorities to find out the reseans for the slow pace of human development. Since this study is  
based on secondary data, it will provide broad spectrum of human development stretagy.Thus the research  
will have immense significance to the policy maker of country, along with government authorities and International  
organizations. The research under study has interdisciplinary relevance and the result or the findings of the  
research can be useful and applicable to other disciplines such as Management, Commerce, Human Resource  
Management and Development Economics.  
Human development  
Human development approach has numerous advantages:  
It contributes directly to the well being of people.  
It builds from a foundation of equality of opportunity.  
It helps to create a more equal distribution of the benefits of development  
It enables the linkages between the various types of investment in people to be fully exploited and  
It takes advantage of the complementarities between human and physical capital.  
The Human Development index  
Each year since 1990 the Human Development Report has published the Human Development  
Index(HDI)which was introduced as an alternative to conventional measures of development, such as level of  
income and the rate of Economic growth. The HDI represents a push for a broader definition of well-being and  
provides a composite measure of three basic dimensions of human development;health,education and  
income.Norvey,s HDI is highest which gives the country a rank of 1 out of 187 countries with comparable data.I  
has took India and Norvey,s HDI ranking of some important economic development indicators-  
INDIA( 2009 )  
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3.14%of GDP  
Source -Human development index 2010-2011  
According to above details we can observe that India is far behind comparative to developed countries  
therefore we can suggest and adopt some human development strategy that are mentioned blow-  
Property Rights &Tenure Security- Access to land defines the existence of many poor people. Article  
17 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights recognizes property rights as a fundamental human right. The  
focus on property rights, as envisaged in the Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor report, on the  
one hand seeks to expand the legal protection of assets of the poor and on the other, promote the access to  
property by the poor.  
Rights To Livelihood & Enterpreneurship- Rights and protection required to support self-employment,  
start businesses and become a micro-entrepreneur – as derived from existing rights, including political, civil,  
economic and social ones – are essential for the livelihoods of the poor An effective legal system, local  
government institutions and services that are more open, accessible, accountable and have legitimacy, are  
key for a more inclusive society and empowerment of the poor.  
Labour Rights-One of poor people’s greatest assets is their ability to work. Yet most of the world’s poor  
work in the informal economy in badly paid jobs, struggling to carve out a decent living. With this in mind,  
UNDP’s legal empowerment of the poor work encourages more inclusive labour standards and rights – both  
nationally and internationally – while advocating for more productive and decent jobs.  
Rules Of Law And Access To Justice -The legal system can play an important role in supporting  
poverty eradication by helping poor people to access the appropriate mix of rights and remedies. However,  
laws that discriminate against, or ignore, the rights and livelihoods of the poor can pose serious obstacles to  
the eradication of poverty. In such contexts, law and justice sector reforms can provide the foundation for  
protection and incentives to enable poor people to realize the full value of their human and physical capital  
Human Rights Based Approach And Water Governance -Water governance is about the political,  
social, economic and administrative systems that determine who gets what water when and how. A human  
rights based approach (HRBA) emphasizes both development outcomes and the process by which rights are  
realized. The HRBA focus on process and its foundation in the core principles of equality and non-discrimination,  
participation, and accountability offer one concrete way to work with improving water governance.  
Millenium Development Goals - The Goals Are:  
Eradicating extreme poverty and hunger,  
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Achieving universal primary education,  
Promoting gender equality and empowering women,  
Reducing child mortality rates,  
Improving maternal health,  
Combating HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases,  
Ensuring environmental sustainability, and  
Developing a global partnership for development.  
Mandatory Disclosure Of Assets - Mandatory reporting of assets held by individuals abroad and re-opening  
of I-T return filings up to 16 years are among the steps being proposed by the government to tackle the  
menace of blackmoney.”I propose a series of measures to deter the generation and use of unaccounted  
money,” Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee said while presenting the Budget for 2012-13 today. The government  
has also proposed slapping a tax of 30 per cent on undisclosed money, credits, investments and expenditures.1  
STRENGTHING RTI- Now titled the Right to Information Act, became a law in 2005. The provisions of the Act  
give rise to several communication issues. The public needs to be made aware of its right to seek information  
from the government, and the administration on its part has to be reassured that the Act is pro-government  
enhancing accountability and bringing people closer to governmental processes..  
Real And Meaning Full Decentralization - In an era of globalization decentralization is the principal  
countervailing trend which can ensure that the growth process is pro –poor ,pro-women,pro-nature and pro –  
jobs.In order to transform present realities,it is imperative to strengthen decentralization from blow,so that  
voices of the poor could carry weight in village assembles and ward council meetings.  
Flexible Rolling Plan- Fifth FYP was launched and planned for period 1974-79 but Janata government came  
in power in 1978 and ended the plan prematurely in 1978. The Janata government launched sixth FYP for  
period 1978-1983. Congress government when came in power in 1980 abandoned the sixth FYP and launched  
a new sixth FYP for period 1980-1985. The plan for period, 1978-80, is called the rolling plan. Therefore FYP  
should be flexible for achieving goals.  
Political Will - Although lack of political will is repeatedly cited as a major obstacle to human development  
goals, it is surprisingly under-analyzed and little understood .Hammenger (1998, 12) calls political will “the  
slipperiest concept in the policy lexicon,” while Evans (2000) concludes that the difficulty with most discussions  
of political will is that we spend more time lamenting its absence than analyzing what it means.  
Removal Of Restrictions On Praivate Sector —According to Amit Bhandari(2008)”It is not the invisibal hand  
of the market and the neo liberal agenda,always speaking of privatization, that cn eradicate poverty,establish  
food security,ensure universal , access of health care education and affordable housing and reduce equality  
and strengthen human development.  
Community Development - NGO,s have to play very important role for strengthening People India’s Community  
Development Projects that are about fighting with some of very poor people, developing the skills, knowledge  
and experience of people as individuals and in groups, thus enabling them to undertake initiatives of their own  
to combat social, economic, political and environmental problems in their communities, and enabling them to  
fully participate in a truly democratic process.  
Low Skilled Job Creation -. Within the last four to six years, low-skilled workers, including high school  
dropouts, have raised their employment levels substantially. Another likely reason is that the number of dropouts  
entering the labour force has been entirely offset by high school dropouts leaving the market as older, less-  
educated workers retire. In the coming decade, the demographic shifts will be less favourable for low-skilled  
Use Of State Owned Enterprises - State owned (SOEs), in general, have not been successful. Their indifferent  
performance has been at the center of the debate about the role of the state in the economy. To economists,  
the performance of SOEs is evidence of what is wrong with state intervention. And in recent years privatization  
has increasingly been regarded as the only way of improving the performance of SOEs. But India is developing  
country so for socio-Economic development of the country use of state owned sector like health and education  
is must.  
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Continous Education - The goal of continuous education is to offer courses to a large number of participants  
across the country . Each course is offered through video broadcast lectures supported by course handbook.  
The broadcast is through satellite transmission to a large number of registered Remote Centers (RCs). Each  
RC projects the lectures on the screen, in a classroom for up to fifty participants guided by a local supervisor.  
Participants have the opportunity to ask questions during the lecture, which can be immediately answered by  
the distant instructor, as in a real classroom.It will be great help for human development.  
Enabling Business Environment - India was, for a while, the world’s second fastest growing economy, but its  
growth engine has been faltering in the recent period. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) forecasts a  
growth of 4.9 per cent for 2012 due to internal structural sluggishness and a sputtering global recovery. It  
describes the country’s business scenario as “unusually uncertain” amidst waning business confidence, slow  
approval of new projects and sluggish structural reforms.  
Improved Safety, Security & Risk Coverage - Social protection is an expensive and difficult endeavor, by any  
means; the question remains how best to implement programs that effectively aid the people who need it the  
most. Currently, there are a number of mechanisms that provide social protection in various nations. In some  
nations, governments are strongly involved in the provision of social protection, following a developmentalism  
model, in which social protection is seen as a tool to promote economic growth.  
Real And Meaning Full Decentralization - We expect decentralization to bring decision-making governance  
closer to the people/citizens. Donors use this rationale to push governments, mainly in developing countries,  
to devolve central power and authority towards strengthening civic engagement in local governance processes.  
Sustainable Development - Sustainable development, at present time is a most concern phenomena. Globally  
every country including most developing country like India and China thinks very much about it because they  
realise that their future generation must be suffer to lack of resources which is obviously most central to survive.  
This phenomenon comes after Second World War. The concept of sustainable development is not related only  
future generation but also with the present generation.  
Access to finance capital In many developing countries the most prominent feature of the capital market  
is its structural dualism, i.e., its division in two parts, a formal and an informal sector. The formal financial sector  
contains commercial banks, insurance companies, perhaps a stock market, a government established and  
operated development bank, and perhaps a housing finance institution. These institutions cater to the needs of  
large, well established industrial and service enterprises (domestic and foreign), the wealthy (for personal  
loans), the upper middle class (in the case of mortgages) and, in the rural areas, large farmers, ranchers and  
plantation companies.  
Land, natural capital and comparative advantage—When designing a human development strategy, it is  
not enough to scrutinize labour and capital markets for possible malfunctioning; other markets should also be  
examined, particularly markets that supply widely used inputs that influence the structure of costs in a variety  
of economic activities.  
Human capital and dynamic comparative advantage  
Some developing countries may be endowed with an abundance of natural resources, but the costs  
associated with trying to exploit this comparative advantage for international trade have invariably been  
underestimated. Most development economists have become convinced that the formation of human capital  
is important, perhaps even central, to that development effort in poor countries. When the true domestic  
opportunity costs of environmental degradation have been ascertained, many countries may not indeed be  
blessed with a real comparative advantage, certainly not at the rate at which they are exploiting their natural  
The Shape Of The Education Pyramid  
The education sector absorbs more public resources than any other human development activity in  
developing countries and the issues raised in allocating tax revenues to education are similar to those that  
arise in other sectors. Thus it should be possible to apply our analysis to other expenditure programmes with  
only minor modifications. Formal education, however, is only one way people acquire knowledge.  
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Access of all to primary health care  
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As with education, so too in health: there is an inverted expenditure pyramid in most developing countries .  
About three-quarters of all public expenditure on health is for expensive medical care that benefits a small  
minority of the population living in the urban areas.  
Decentralization and empowerment  
It goes without saying that a human development strategy cannot be implemented if the revenues  
available to the government from domestic and foreign sources are inadequate. In addition, human development  
requires a public administration that is well adapted to the strategy and capable of implementing the tasks for  
which it is responsible.  
Structural reforms and safety nets  
Small number of structural reforms are guaranteed employment, an equitable distribution of productive  
assets , food security and nutrition, and economic security and welfare. These structural reforms are not substitutes  
for reforms of incentives and government spending, they are complementary to them. In combination they  
should go a long way toward ensuring that all members of society have opportunities to fulfil their potential as  
Guaranteed employment  
Employment is fundamental to a human development strategy . Employment provides people with a  
source of income, it contributes to the output of goods and services and it gives workers a sense of dignity by  
enabling them to participate in the activities of the community and to contribute something of value. Equally  
important, employment is necessary to reap the full benefits of investment in human capital.  
Food security  
Food security is of course essential for life and even where there is enough food to prevent death by  
starvation, individuals may not consume sufficient food to enable them to lead a full life or achieve their  
maximum productivity. Thus food security, and specifically adequate nutrition, is one of the ends of human  
development while also being a means to human development.  
The goal of human development is to help people realize their own potential, to develop their intellectual,  
technical and organizational capabilities. Thus human development inescapably is development by the people  
if it is to be development for the people. In order to fulfil their potential people must participate actively in  
constructing their own autonomous, democratic organizations, including of course their political organizations.  
Political empowerment is an integral aspect of participatory development. Those from outside the community—  
whether representatives of government or non-governmental organizations—who help people construct their  
grass roots institutions can be most effective when they function chiefly as facilitators, catalysts or animators.  
An activist state can encourage or animate human development but it cannot engineer it. That must be done  
by the people themselves and experience suggests that direct democracy at the local level is the best way to  
foster it. We can say that urgent global challenges of sustainability and equity must be addressed together –  
and identifies policies on the national and global level that could spur mutually reinforcing progress towards  
these interlinked goals. We need to add analysis and understanding of politics, interest and political movements.  
The Times of India,26Dec.2012 article by Udit Prasanna Mukharji”India needs to cultivate its food security  
and plan for 2020:ASSOCHAM STUDY.