Magazine 2017
International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
*Rekha Kaklotar  
Infrastructure is the basic physical system of a business or nation. Without development of infrastructure  
economic development is not possible. Infrastructure is the basic needs for growth of country. There are  
two types of infrastructure, Economic and Social. Economic infrastructure includes transportation,  
communication, electricity, banking etc. Social infrastructure includes health, education, water, sanitation  
etc services. To achieve high growth rate all nations of the world try to expand infrastructure facility. Many  
countries have made substantial progress over the past two decade. Nevertheless several high achievers  
not only boost national income, but have also had better performance on social indicators such as  
health and education. Manu countries has achieved high growth rate, but their human development  
index is very low. Because they put more stress on development of economic infrastructure but neglect  
social infrastructure especially health and education. This paper review about the needs of social  
infrastructure especially Health and Education, Government spending on health and education, future  
scope to promote good infrastructure in the area of health and education  
Keywords : Social infrastructure, health, education  
Infrastructure is the basic physical system of a business or nation. Without development of infrastructure economic  
development is not possible. There are two types of infrastructure, Economic and Social. The Social infrastructure  
in India includes the education system in India, health care, the management of education and health services  
in India that form the basic social infrastructure definition. India’s development is incomplete without social  
development and that would require focus on the infrastructure strategy for social research in India. The  
infrastructure policy of India needs to be made more comprehensive with major changes in the infrastructure  
projects taken up in the past and more research behind the project infrastructure so as to yield maximum  
developmental results. The infrastructure research work includes the current issues that require immediate  
attention in a proper infrastructure report and then formulation and planning of projects.  
During planning period government of India try to develop infrastructure facility. Due to this share of service  
sector in GDP has been increased up to 40%. But weakness is that government spent lots of money for  
economic infrastructure, but ignore social infrastructure especially health and education. Economic development  
doesn’t mean increase in national income and per capita income. But with economic development basic needs  
of poor and quality of life must be improved. During planning period government spent very less money on  
health and education.  
Need for the Study  
Development of various social infrastructure facilities has been well considered to be an important and instrumental  
measure for the diversification of different economic activities and achieving economic development. Its  
importance is also quite significantly attached with bringing qualitative improvement in the standard of living  
and life style of population. The availability of infrastructure may lead to growth in turn generates sufficient  
demand for better availability of infrastructure in future. In this sense, social infrastructure development is most  
essential in developing countries especially in India. Several studies have been concluded on infrastructure  
development at both national and state levels. But very few studies are available pertaining to social infrastructure  
particularly on education and health. Hence , the present study gains relevance.  
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Objective of this Study  
To review the needs in the social infrastructure development with social reference to education and  
To know the government spending on education and health  
To draw various conclusions in regards to study  
To throw light on challenges ahead to develop social infrastructure  
To know future scope in health and education development  
The following methodology has been adopted for present study:  
In this study, mainly secondary data is used regarding, health and education. The data is collected from  
various sources such as, Various Publications of Directorate of Health and Family Welfare Reports, Health  
Information of India, National Health profile (various years), Selected Education Statistics (various years), Further  
Reports, Articles, Research Papers, Books and Journals have been used to strengthen the Statistical and  
information bases of the study.  
Tools of Analysis:  
The simple statistical tools such as, Percentages, Average, Charts and Diagrams etc. have been used in order  
to interpret the data and conclusion have been drawn.  
Meaning of Social Infrastructure  
Social infrastructure refers to the community facilities, services and networks that help individuals, families,  
groups and communities meets their social needs, maximize their potential for development and enhance  
community wellbeing.  
Social infrastructure Includes:  
Universal facilities and services such as education, training, health, welfare, social services, open spaces ,  
recreation and sports, safety and emergency services, learning, religious, arts and cultural facilities, civic  
and democratic institutions, and community meeting places.  
Lifecycle targeted facilities and services, such as those for children, young people and older people e.g.  
early childhood centers and retirement villages.  
Networking and community interaction -from events, local networks and activities.  
Spiritual and cultural wellbeing -from faith based, cultural and spiritual organization, networks and facilities.  
Creative expression- through arts and cultural institution  
Review of Literature  
Barar(2002),pointed out that Punjab has experiencing multiple imbalances between the social sector and  
economic growth. In comparison with low per capita income in the state Kerala, Punjab is far behind the  
former in fulfilling the vital needs of the society. So, the policy makers must realize that only by upgrading  
the quality of human resources through improved education and health.  
Bahchi and Sarkar(2003), made an attempt to show that inter district disparity in health and education in  
West Bengal. For the study purpose they have taken six indicators each indicator from education and  
health sectors. This study finds out that there are sharp disparities both among the districts as well as  
among 74 three designated regions of the state. Policies prescriptions have been made in the paper for  
the reduction of inter district disparity in social development.  
International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
Nayar &Deepak(2006),a well known economist while discussing the 50- years achievements of post  
independent India considers non-transformation of economic development into people’s life-their health  
and literacy- the most important failure of India.  
Satyanarayana(2010), in his paper “Quality in Education is the key towards Development: Issues and  
Challenges” discussed the quality aspect of education. Increase in absolute number of institutions and  
students there, certainly a parameter to judge the growth of the education system. The paper suggests  
some key for enhancement of quality in education. Quality and excellence should be an agenda for the  
further development of education.  
Samra & Alka(2010), in her paper “The Role of Education in Economic Development- An Interstate Analysis”  
identified regional disparities in education and development. For better understanding of inter-relationship  
between the two she developed the Education Development Index with help of adult literacy rate, enrolment  
ratio, number of primary schools per thousand populations, percentage of habitations having educational  
amenities and teacher-pupil ratio. Simultaneously she also developed by using per capita gross domestic  
product at constant price, per capita consumption expenditure for 30 days, percentage of people above  
poverty line and employment rate. Co-relation coefficient between education development index and  
economic development index is 0.167 which show a weak relationship.  
Chopra Vipla and Bharati Kapur(2011), in their study as attempt has been made to examine the public  
health spending in India. The combined revenue 77 and capital expenditure of centre, state and union  
territories has been analyzed over a period of time. The study also seeks to examine the inter- state  
differences in public health expenditure. The study observed that expenditure incurred on health was found  
decreasing. So far not much has been studied on social infrastructure in particular education and health in  
the study area. Hence, this study is an additional contribution to the field of social infrastructure.  
Agenor,P.R. and Moreno Dodson(2006), study the link between infrastructure availability and health as  
well as education of society that proves that infrastructure services are crucial for health and education  
quality and availability which to a big extent effects welfare.  
Need of Social Infrastructure Development  
Encourage social inclusion  
Support diverse communities  
Create sustainable communities  
Improve health and wellbeing  
Access to facilities, services and programs  
Support to growing population  
Assist economic development  
However, the failure to make adequate provision for social infrastructure in the past has exacerbated the  
problems for these areas.  
Investment on education and health is a productive investment. Government spending on human resources  
and social infrastructure will increase HDI of country.  
Expenditure on health and education help redistribute income and achieve more equality.  
However, there is now a growing realization that the social services, like education and health are not  
merely to be treated as welfare activities but are essentially in the form of investment in human capital.  
Hence, investment in Social infrastructure is also directly related to the aims of increasing productivity and  
promoting growth. Thus, investment in human capital is as important as investment in material or physical  
capital. Recognizing the complementarily of the two types of infrastructure. It is important that of Social  
infrastructure is planned with similar priority.  
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Trends in Social Services Expenditure by Government (Centre and States)  
As Percentage to GDP  
As Percentage to Total Expenditure  
Source: Budget Documents of Union and State Governments.  
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Future Scope and Challenges in Social Infrastructure Development in India  
A) Future Scope  
Social health, mental health, referral system and urban health remain as weak links in India’s health system,  
despite featuring in the national health policy. School health programs have become almost defunct(no  
longer in effect) because of administrative, managerial and logistic problems. Mental health has remained  
elusive even after implementing the National Mental Health Program.  
On a positive note, innovative schemes through public-private partnership are being tried in various parts  
of the country in promoting referrals. Similarly, the much awaited National Urban Health Mission might offer  
solutions with regards to urban health.  
India scored 12% literacy at the same time independence to 74% as per 2011 census, it still lags behind  
the world average of 84%. Targeted programs at primary and secondary education like SSA (Sarva Shikshan  
Abhiyan) have definitely proved beneficial to some extent but a lot needs to be done to truly educate  
Almost 85% of the Indian population does not speak or write English. Creation of a Hindi (other supported  
local language) internet to tap the sub urban or rural market potential can prove to be a key element to  
penetrate deeper. Also, affordable internet access, data enabled device and appropriate internet plans  
can play a significant role in tapping the market.  
We are in the golden era of educational apps and games. Apps are main pillar of the modern age education  
and learning system. We need to develop more and more apps that can help to improve the education  
system. Parents need innovative educational apps with the original content so that they can educate their  
child in an easy and effective way. Well current trend shows that most of the parents prefer paid educational  
apps as compared to free apps for their kids; it depends on the content and idea of the app that can  
attract more eyeballs. Making apps free or paid is up to the business model but what you are going to  
offer matters a lot.  
Energy engineering, nuclear engineering, etc. the job opportunities are high. Technology and business  
evolve quickly and new careers come and go just as fast. Because of this, it’s important to choose a career  
field that will be in high demand for the foreseeable future and sharpen skills over time. Structural, civil  
project and environmental engineers will see job growth ranging from 24% to 31% over the next decade.  
Biomedical engineers will see job growth at a whopping 72%.  
B) Challenges  
The new agenda for public health in India includes the epidemiological transition( rising burden on chronic  
non-communicable diseases), demographic transition ( increasing elderly population), and environmental  
changes. The unfinished agenda of maternal and child mortality, HIV/AIDS pandemic and other communicable  
diseases still exerts on the over stretched health system.  
International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
Health systems are grappling with the effects of existing communicable and non- communicable diseases  
and also with the increasing burden of emerging re-emerging diseases (drug- resistant TB, Malaria, SARS,  
Avian flu and the current HINI pandemic). Inadequate financial resources for the health sector and inefficient  
utilization result in inequalities in health. As issues such as Trade-Related aspects of Intellectual property  
Rights continue to be debated in international forums, the health systems will face new pressure.  
In the era of globalization, numerous political, economic and social events, worldwide influence the food  
and fuel prices of all countries, we are yet to recover from the far-reaching consequences of the global  
recession of 2008.  
The role of education as a social infrastructure and as a stimulant of growth and development can be  
enhanced only if it is qualitatively provided. Qualitative education is a major determinant of the stock of  
human capital. A less developing economy needs professionals in all sectors to accelerate the growth and  
development of such sectors.  
The key engines for India’s growth are social and physical infrastructure, which require continued investments  
to accelerate growth prospects. The challenges before the government right now is to sustain the present  
momentum in social infrastructure spend, while pumping financial resources into physical infrastructure.  
The progress of infrastructure development has not been smooth in the recent years, with significance  
shortfalls in planned investments. This problem is compounded by the fact that many of the announced  
projects are yet to be completed, with large time and cost overruns. Figures sourced from governments  
reports reveal that nearly 276 projects out of 566 projects tracked by Ministry of Statistics and Programme  
Implementation have been delayed.  
Limitation of this Study  
The following are the major limitations of this study.  
The study is based on only secondary data. Hence, the conclusions arrived in this study are subject to the  
veracity and the limitations of those data that have been used.  
Primary data has not been used in the present study.  
The present study is confined to the discussion of education and health only.  
Hence, the development of India is incomplete without social development and that would require focus on the  
infrastructure strategy for social research in India. Public expenditure on health Is quite low. It is not merely that  
some groups in particular lack access to healthcare facilities, but that the poor are generally excluded. All this  
is a result of low governments’ expenditure on health. In view of this, the government intends to raise public  
expenditure on health. Though India is moving in the right direction in terms of improving the health status of its  
Despite making considerable progress during the last six decades, much remains to be achieved in the field of  
education. The problem of illiteracy still looms large in India even six decade after independence. The discussion  
in this paper compels us to rethink the prevailing circumstances of physical infrastructure within the education  
system in India. The shortages of trained teacher remained a major barrier to achieving the goal of “Education  
for All”. Primary schools were most affected by teacher shortage.  
In our premise of the interlocking circles of development, we hold that to improve his economic and social life  
a man must also improve his health and his education. Indian Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen has repeatedly  
pointed out that no country has developed with an illiterate and unhealthy population. In fact, the ingredients  
education and health are equally important and closely interdependent. Modern economic growth has been  
inspired by a rapid persistent up gradation of technology and scientific knowledge for which human capital  
formation through enhancing.  
International Peer-Reviewed Journal  
References :  
Barar J.S.(2002),”Basic Education, Healthcare and Economic Growth in Punjab: Achievements, Gaps and  
Imbalance”, Journal of Man and Development,March,2002,Pp 51-62  
Five Year plan of India (2012-17), vol-1, p. 31. 155,165168,147  
Government of India(1996),Rakesh Mohan Committee Report on Infrastructure Development in India, Ministry  
of Finance, New Delhi.(  
Government of India(2001),National Human Development Report 2001, Planning Commission, New Delhi  
Government of India (2005) scheme for support to public private partnership in infrastructure, ministry of  
finance, New Delhi.  
Government of India (2012), Manual Infrastructure Statistics, Central Statistics Office, Ministry of Statistics  
and Programme Implementation, New Delhi,P.13  
India Human Development Report, 2011, Towards social inclusion, p.157-169, 181-  
India infrastructure summit 2012  
Jhingan,M.L.(1975),”The Economic of Development and Planning,,”,Vikas Publishing,p.532  
Ministry of human development resource Development research  
Organization for economic co-operation and development statistics  
Planning commission (2007) projection of investment in infrastructure during the eleventh plan, government  
of India, New Delhi  
Promoting right in school-providing quality public education  
The national recovery plan, 2011-14, budget 2013,2011-14  
Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Maniben Nanavati Women’s College, Mumbai – 400056.